Tomas Pueyo in Uncharted Territories:
Pakistan has two things: very high mountains, and a very flat plain.
The plain, in turn, is either desert or the Indus Valley.
The Indus Valley is where the population is most concentrated. You can easily tell by just looking at the map of nightlights.
So when the Indus floods, it does so on the most fertile areas of its valley. The most fertile areas are also the most populous, and so a big share of Pakistan’s 220 million people is affected.
So why the floods? Why is the monsoon so aggressive this year? We need to understand the mechanics of the monsoon.