The Five Horses of Doctor Ramón Emeterio Betances
Mayaguez Puerto Rico 1856
I. The First Horse
Cholera swarmed unseen through the water, lurking in wells and fountains,
… squirming in garbage and excrement, infinitesimal worms drilling the intestines,
… till all the water and salt would pour from the body, till the body became a worm,
… shriveling and writhing, a slug in salt, till the skin burned blue as flame, the skin
… of the peasant and the skin of the slave gone blue, the skin in the slave barracks blue,
… the skin of ten thousand slaves blue. The Blue Death, face hidden in a bandanna,
… dug graves with the gravediggers, who fell into holes they shoveled for the dead.
… The doctors died too, seeing the signs in the mirror, the hand with the razor shaking.
II. The Second Horse
Doctor Betances stepped off the boat, back from Paris, the humidity of the plague
… glistening in his beard. He saw the stepmother who fed him sink into a mound
… of dirt, her body empty as the husk of a locust in drought.He toweled off his hands.
… In the quarantine tents there was laudanum by the bitter spoonful, the lemonade
… and broth; in the dim of the kerosene lamps there was the compress cool against
… the forehead, the elixir of the bark from the cinchona tree. For peasants and slaves
… moaning to their gods, the doctor prescribed chilled champagne to soothe the belly.
… For the commander of the Spanish garrison, there was silence bitter as the spoon.
III. The Third Horse
At every hacienda, at every plantation, as the bodies of slaves rolled one by one
… into ditches all hipbones and ribs, drained of water and salt, stripped of names,
… Doctor Betances commanded the torch for the barracks where the bodies would
… tangle together, stacked up as if they never left the ship that sailed from Africa,
… kept awake by the ravenous worms of the plague feasting upon them. Watching
… the blue flames blacken the wood, the doctor and the slaves saw another plague
… burning away, the plague of manacles scraping the skin from hands that cut
… the cane, the plague of the collar with four spikes for the runaways brought back.
IV. The Fourth Horse
The pestilence of the masters, stirred by spoons into the coffee of the world,
… spread first at the marketplace, at auction, the coins passing from hand to hand.
… So Doctor Betances began, at church, with twenty-five pesos in pieces of eight,
… pirate coins dropped into the hands of slaves to drop into the hands of masters,
… buying their own infants at the baptismal font. The secret society of abolitionists
… shoved rowboats full of runaways off the docks in the bluest hour of the blue night,
… off to islands without masters. Even the doctor would strangle in the executioner’s
… garrote, spittle in his beard, if the soldiers on watch woke up from the opiate of empire.
V. The Fifth Horse
The governor circled his name in the name of empire, so Doctor Betances
… sailed away to exile, the island drowning in his sight, but a vision stung
… his eyes like salt in the wind: in the world after the plague, no more
… plague of manacles; after the pestilence, no more pestilence of masters;
… after the cemeteries of cholera, no more collar of spikes or executioners.
… In his eye burned the blue of the rebel flag and the rising of his island.
… The legend calls him the doctor who exhausted five horses, sleepless
… as he chased invisible armies into the night. Listen for the horses.
by Martin Espada
from The Academy of American Poets
About this poem:
“Ramón Emeterio Betances was a 19th century Puerto Rican revolutionary, abolitionist, writer and physician. He was born in Puerto Rico of partly African descent, received his medical degree in Paris, and returned to a cholera epidemic that killed approximately 30,000 people, including 10,000 under the yoke of slavery. He played a major role fighting the epidemic and, simultaneously, organized an abolitionist movement. Forced into exile, Betances would go on to direct an insurrection against the Spanish colonizers called the Grito de Lares on September 23rd, 1868—a hundred and fifty-two years ago today; though it failed, the abolition of slavery followed a few years later. The poem speaks to the present by invoking a hidden past, the battle against the pandemics of lethal disease and racial oppression, the radicalization of self and society, the vision of justice rising from the ruins.”