PERCEPTIONS: on the tradition of discussion


Hamza and Umar exchange insults with Ghazanfar, and challenge him to battle outside the fortress of Armanus.

From The Hamzanama. Volume 11, painting number 19, text number 20. India, Mughal dynasty, circa 1570. Attributed to Mukhlis and Madhava Khurd.

More on “The Adventures of Hamza” here.